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机动车尾气排放颗粒数浓度评价综述:法规发展和监测技术

吴丹 沈上圯 刘佳琪 丑佳 赵红达 赵汐 张国城

吴丹,沈上圯,刘佳琪,等. 机动车尾气排放颗粒数浓度评价综述:法规发展和监测技术[J]. 计量科学与技术,2024, 68(1): 10-17 doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0310
引用本文: 吴丹,沈上圯,刘佳琪,等. 机动车尾气排放颗粒数浓度评价综述:法规发展和监测技术[J]. 计量科学与技术,2024, 68(1): 10-17 doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0310
WU Dan, SHEN Shangyi, LIU Jiaqi, CHOU Jia, ZHAO Hongda, ZHAO Xi, ZHANG Guocheng. Review of Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Particulate Number Concentration: Regulatory Developments and Monitoring Technologies[J]. Metrology Science and Technology, 2024, 68(1): 10-17. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0310
Citation: WU Dan, SHEN Shangyi, LIU Jiaqi, CHOU Jia, ZHAO Hongda, ZHAO Xi, ZHANG Guocheng. Review of Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Particulate Number Concentration: Regulatory Developments and Monitoring Technologies[J]. Metrology Science and Technology, 2024, 68(1): 10-17. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0310

机动车尾气排放颗粒数浓度评价综述:法规发展和监测技术

doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0310
基金项目: 国家市场监督管理总局科技计划项目(2021MK003、2023MK001);中央引导地方科技发展资金项目(科技成果转移转化项目)(226Z3901G);北京市计量检测科学研究院自主课题(KJ2023-29)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴丹(1991-),北京市计量检测科学研究院高级工程师,研究方向:环境气溶胶在线监测仪器的计量检测研究,邮箱:wud@bjjl.cn

    通讯作者:

    张国城(1980-),北京市计量检测科学研究院正高级工程师,研究方向:化学分析与环境监测仪器的计量检测研究,邮箱:zhanggc@bjjl.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB99

Review of Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Particulate Number Concentration: Regulatory Developments and Monitoring Technologies

  • 摘要: 环境颗粒物水平对人体健康有紧密的联系,而道路交通排放是城市环境颗粒物的重要来源。随着机动车尾气排放颗粒物质量浓度接近测量下限,灵敏度更高的颗粒物测量手段及评价方法的开发亟需解决。机动车颗粒物排放在过去二十年中受到越来越多的关注,使得全球排放法规发生了许多变化,包括更严格的标准、新指标以及拓展到更广泛的非道路应用领域。这些变化产生了对能够实时测量、高灵敏度、车载仪器的新要求。而颗粒物数量浓度的测量作为评价机动车排放颗粒物污染重要的补充手段,相关法规及研究者们都在不断的探索指标的评价依据和评价方法,综述了这一指标在相关法规中的发展历程,以及针对机动车尾气排放颗粒数浓度现有的测量方法,包括当前和新发展的仪器原理及应用范围进行了综述,为机动车尾气排放颗粒数浓度测量及评价的技术发展提供参考。
  • 图  1  粒子从发动机到测量位置的性质变化过程[20]

    Figure  1.  Transformation process of particle properties from engine to measurement point

    图  2  连续流冷凝粒子计数器

    Figure  2.  Continuous flow condensation particle counter

    图  3  扩散荷电法原理图

    Figure  3.  Principle schematic of diffusion charging

    图  4  快速集成迁移谱仪原理图

    Figure  4.  Schematic of the Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS)

    图  5  电低压冲击器原理图

    Figure  5.  Schematic of the Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI)

    表  1  PMP在不同阶段法规的变化及发展情况[19]

    Table  1.   Changes and developments in PMP regulations across various stages

    年份 变化及发展情况 发展变化
    2001—2003 广泛的测量技术和抽样系统进行了评估。 /
    2004—2006 针对轻型的实验室试验。 评估两种推荐方法(改进的PM质量法,固体颗粒计数法)的可重复性和再现性。
    2007—2009 针对重型的实验室试验;
    提出了基于直径大于23 nm的固体颗粒计数的测量方法。
    2011 固体颗粒计数法纳入了轻型柴油车(欧洲5b)的欧洲排放法规。 /
    2013 固体颗粒计数法纳入了重型柴油车(欧洲5b)的欧洲排放法规;同时纳入联合国法规83和联合国法规49。 欧盟和瑞士要求进一步调查火花点火发动机的颗粒数排放,特别是在23 nm以下。主要议题包括:
    汽油直喷(GDI)车辆的排放。
    开发测量23 nm以下颗粒的设备。
    更新校准程序(如有必要则更新较小尺寸的校准程序)。
    重型发动机型式批准中发动机原始排气颗粒测量。
    非废气颗粒排放。
    2014 扩展到轻型汽油直喷车。 /
    2019 对非道路移动机械实施限制;
    10 nm的测量方案的提案作为GTR 15的一个选项引入,同时也做好了应用于重型法规的准备。
    10 nm的测量方案已于2021年提交联合国RDE小组。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  实验室测试系统中,不同方案差异化校准要求的比较。

    Table  2.   Comparative analysis of differential calibration requirements in laboratory test systems

    测试部件 测试参数 原始方案(23 nm) 改进方案(23 nm) 改进方案(10 nm)
    挥发性
    去除器
    催化汽提塔 无要求 可能有要求 有要求
    进入颗粒物检测器的温度 <35℃ <PNC specs <PNC specs
    颗粒物数浓度衰减因子
    (particle number concentration reduction factor, PCRF)
    PCRF50/PCRF100≤ 1.2
    PCRF30/PCRF100≤ 1.3
    PCRF50/PCRF100≤ 1.2
    PCRF30/PCRF100≤ 1.3
    PCRF50/PCRF100≤ 1.2
    PCRF30/PCRF100≤ 1.3
    PCRF15/PCRF100≤ 2.0
    挥发性物质去除效率 VREC40,30nm,≥104 #/cm3 > 99.0% VREC40,30nm,≥104 #/cm3 > 99.0% VREC40,≥50nm,1mg /m3 > 99.9%
    颗粒数量
    计数器
    测试颗粒材质 无要求 煤烟样或PAO 煤烟样或PAO
    线性度 ±10% 斜率±5% 斜率±5%
    CE认证 41 nm>90% 41 nm>90% 15 nm>90%
    校正要求 重合校正<10% 任何内部校正 任何内部校正
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  对于PEMS不同粒径颗粒的计数效率要求

    Table  3.   Counting efficiency requirements for PEMS across different particle sizes

    粒径(nm) 计数效率
    PEMS-(23 nm) PEMS-(10 nm)
    10 / 0.10~0.50
    15 / 0.30~0.70
    23 0.20~0.60 /
    30 0.30~1.20 0.75~1.05
    50 0.60~1.30 0.85~1.15
    70 0.70~1.30 0.85~1.15
    100 0.70~1.30 0.80~1.20
    200 0.50~2.00 0.80~2.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  其他国家法规对于固体颗粒数浓度限制的总结

    Table  4.   Overview of international regulations on solid particulate number concentration limits

    国家测试系统轻型重型非道路
    韩国实验室E 6
    (柴油,2014)
    E VI
    (柴油,2015)
    /
    新加坡实验室E 6
    (柴油,汽油直喷2018)
    Euro VI (all, 2018)/
    印度实验室BS VI
    (柴油,汽油直喷2020)
    BS VI (all, 2020) 1BS V (2024)
    PEMSCF(还需定义) (2023)CF(还需定义)(2023)/
    中国实验室CN 5 (D, 2016) 2//
    实验室CN 6a (all, 2020)CN VI a (all, 2019)Stage IV (2023) 1
    PEMSCN 6b (CF = 2.1, 2023)CN VI b (CF = 2.0, 2021)CF = 2.5 (no SPN)
    注:1 2025年强制实施;2北京(2013)和上海(2014)提前实施;BS(Bharat stage,巴拉特时期);CN=China。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  常用的颗粒数量浓度测量设备的相关信息

    Table  5.   Details of commonly used equipment for particulate number and concentration measurement

    名称 原理 是否要求稀释 实时性 粒径范围(nm) 检出限(cm−3
    凝结核粒子计数(CPC) 光学吸收 0
    扩散荷电(DC) 扩散 >23 5000
    扫描电迁移率粒径谱仪
    (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS)
    荷电+分级+计数 3~700 100
    微分迁移率谱仪
    (Differential Mobility Spectrometer, DMS),
    发动机排气颗粒分级机
    (Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer, EEPS),
    快速集成迁移谱仪
    (Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer, FIMS)
    5~700 1000
    电气低压冲击器
    (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, ELPI),
    Dekati质量监测
    (Dekati Mass Monitor, DMM)
    10~10000 1000
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-24
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-28
  • 修回日期:  2023-12-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-12-08
  • 刊出日期:  2024-01-18

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