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单能中子产生技术与参考辐射场现状

李凡 张辉 王平全 张亚楠

李凡,张辉,王平全,等. 单能中子产生技术与参考辐射场现状[J]. 计量科学与技术,待出版 doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0059
引用本文: 李凡,张辉,王平全,等. 单能中子产生技术与参考辐射场现状[J]. 计量科学与技术,待出版 doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0059
LI Fan, ZHANG Hui, WANG Pingquan, ZHANG Yanan. Present Status of Monoenergetic Neutron Production Technology and Reference Radiation Fields[J]. Metrology Science and Technology. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0059
Citation: LI Fan, ZHANG Hui, WANG Pingquan, ZHANG Yanan. Present Status of Monoenergetic Neutron Production Technology and Reference Radiation Fields[J]. Metrology Science and Technology. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0059

单能中子产生技术与参考辐射场现状

doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0059
基金项目: 中国计量科学研究院基本科研业务费(AKYZZ2239)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李凡(1993-),中国计量科学研究院副研究员,研究方向:中子计量,邮箱:lifan@nim.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    张辉(1970-),中国计量科学研究院副研究员,研究方向:中子计量,邮箱:zhanghui@nim.ac.cn

Present Status of Monoenergetic Neutron Production Technology and Reference Radiation Fields

  • 摘要: 中子是研究原子核结构、核反应规律、粒子物理、天体物理和物质结构的重要工具,广泛应用于能源、材料、生命科学、医疗健康、辐射防护和半导体等领域。其中,单能中子在电离辐射计量和核能应用领域发挥着越来越重要的作用,因此各国国家计量院和核科学研究机构均建有单能中子参考辐射场。中国计量科学研究院将在未来3至5年内新建这一装置,以完善我国中子计量体系,开展中子物理基础研究和服务各界对单能中子的相关需求。基于最新版本的ISO 8529-1:2021,针对中国计量科学研究院建设单能中子参考辐射场的需求,梳理和计算了单能中子领域最常用的五种核反应在中子能量、中子产额、中子角分布和伴生γ射线本底等方面的参数,整理了现有单能中子参考辐射场的概况和特点,介绍了单能中子参考辐射场常用的主要设备,并给出了中国计量科学研究院拟建单能中子参考辐射场的重要参数。
  • 图  1  常用核反应产生单能中子时入射粒子能量、出射中子能量和角度三者之间的关系

    Figure  1.  The relationship between the incident energy, neutron energy and angles for commonly used nuclear reactions that produce monoenergetic neutrons

    图  2  利用核反应45Sc(p, n)45Ti产生单能中子的产额和中子能量展宽随入射粒子能量和角度的变化情况

    Figure  2.  The yield and energy spread of monoenergetic neutrons produced by nuclear reaction 45Sc(p, n)45Ti for varying with incident energy and angle

    图  3  入射粒子为2.926MeV质子,靶为0.005 mg·cm−2金属钪时,核反应45Sc(p, n)45Ti中子产额随出射角度变化趋势

    Figure  3.  The trend of neutron yield from the nuclear reaction 45Sc(p, n)45Ti with the emission angle when the incident particles are protons with energy of 2.926MeV and the target is scandium with mass thickness of 0.005 mg·cm−2

    图  4  一些机构在各个能量点处的中子能量展宽

    Figure  4.  The neutron energy spread at various energy points for some institutes

    图  5  中国计量科学研究院单能中子参考辐射场布局设计

    注:(1)靶;(2)探测器及其位移平台;(3)行人平台;(4)飞行时间谱仪;(5)长中子计数器监测器;(6)液闪谱仪监测器;(7)长中子计数器监测器;(8)GM计数器监测器;(9)3He正比管监测器。

    Figure  5.  The layout design of the monoenergetic neutron reference radiation field at the National Institute of Metrology, China

    表  1  用于确定中子测量仪器能量响应的中子辐射

    Table  1.   Neutron radiations for determining the response of neutron-measuring devices as a function of neutron energy

    中子能量/MeV 产生方式
    0.002 反应堆钪过滤中子束或利用加速器通过45Sc(p,n)45Ti反应产生的中子
    0.008* 利用加速器通过45Sc(p,n)45Ti反应产生的中子
    0.024* 反应堆铁-铝过滤中子束或利用加速器通过45Sc(p,n)45Ti和7Li(p,n)7Be反应产生的中子
    通过改变角度,45Sc(p,n)45Ti反应可产生0.024MeV和0.027MeV中子
    还可通过使用124Sb-Be(γ,n)核素中
    子源产生0.0228 MeV中子
    0.144 反应堆硅过滤中子束或利用加速器通过T(p,n)3He和7Li(p,n)7Be反应产生的中子
    0.25 利用加速器通过T(p,n)3He和7Li(p,n)7Be
    反应产生的中子
    0.565 利用加速器通过T(p,n)3He和7Li(p,n)7Be
    反应产生的中子
    1.2 利用加速器通过T(p,n)3He反应产生的中子
    2.5 利用加速器通过T(p,n)3He反应产生的中子
    2.8 利用加速器通过D(d,n)3He反应产生的中子
    5.0 利用加速器通过D(d,n)3He反应产生的中子
    14.8 利用加速器通过T(d,n)4He反应产生的中子
    17.0* 利用加速器通过T(d,n)4He反应产生的中子
    19.0 利用加速器通过T(d,n)4He反应产生的中子
    注:* ISO 8529-1:2021推荐中子能量点相较前一版本的修订之处,另一处修改为将热中子移出该表。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  产生单能中子的5种常用核反应及其重要参数

    Table  2.   Five nuclear reactions used to produce monoenergetic neutrons and their important parameters

    核反应 反应能/MeV Eth
    /MeV
    E’th
    /MeV
    激发态或
    三体反应
    激发态或三体
    反应阈能/MeV
    0°单能中子
    能量范围/MeV
    180°单能中子
    能量范围/MeV
    45Sc(p,n)45Ti −2.84 2.9081 2.9095 45Sc(p,n)45Ti* 2.9461 0.0055 ~ 0.053 0.000 ~ 0.023
    7Li(p,n)7Be −1.646 1.881 1.920 7Li(p,n)7Be* 2.378 0.12 ~ 0.65 0.00 ~ 0.19
    T(p,n)3He −0.764 1.109 1.148 T(p,np)D 8.355 0.29 ~ 7.59 0.00 ~ 1.70
    D(d,n)3He +3.27 0.00 0.00 D(d,np)D 4.451 2.45 ~ 7.71 2.45 ~ 1.64
    T(d,n)4He +17.59 0.00 0.00 T(d,np)T 3.711 14.03 ~ 20.46 14.03 ~ 11.76
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  单能中子参考辐射场所在机构

    Table  3.   Institutes with monoenergetic neutron reference radiation fields

    中子能量/MeV核反应机构
    0.00245Sc(p,n)45TiScIRSN
    0.00845Sc(p,n)45TiScFRS
    0.02445Sc(p,n)45TiScIRSN
    7Li(p,n)7BeLiFNIMJ
    LiOHPTB
    0.02745Sc(p,n)45TiScFRS, NPL
    0.1447Li(p,n)7BeLiFCIAE, FRS, IRSN, KIGAM, NIMJ, NPL
    LiOHPTB
    0.2507Li(p,n)7BeLiFCIAE, FRS, IRMM, IRSN, KIGAM, NPL
    LiOHPTB
    0.5657Li(p,n)7BeLiFCIAE, FRS, IRMM, IRSN, KIGAM, NIMJ, NPL
    LiOHPTB
    1.2T(p,n)3HeTi(T)CIAE, FRS, IRMM, IRSN, NPL, PTB
    2.5T(p,n)3HeTi(T)FRS, IRMM, IRSN, KIGAM, NPL, PTB
    D(d,n)3HeTi(D)NIMJ
    2.8T(p,n)3HeTi(T)IRSN
    D(d,n)3HeTi(D)IRSN
    5.0D(d,n)3HeTi(D)IRMM, IRSN, NIMJ, NPL
    D2-gasFRS, PTB
    8.0D(d,n)3HeTi(D)IRMM
    D2-gasPTB
    9Be(α,n)12CBeNIMJ
    14.8T(d,n)4HeTi(T)FRS, IRMM, IRSN, NIMJ, PTB
    16.5T(d,n)4HeTi(T)IRMM, NPL
    17.0T(d,n)4HeTi(T)N/A
    19.0T(d,n)4HeTi(T)IRMM, IRSN, PTB
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  单能中子参考辐射场实验大厅和加速器参数表

    Table  4.   Parameters for the experimental halls and accelerators of the monoenergetic neutron reference radiation fields

    机构实验厅长×宽×高(m)加速器
    CIAE13.5×10×72×1.7MV Tandetron
    FRS16.5×11.5×12.54MV Pelletron
    IRMMNA7MV Van de Graaff
    IRSN20×20×162×2MV Tandetron
    KIGAM7.6×7.5×6.62×1.7MV Tandem
    NIMJ11.5×11.5×11.54MV Pelletron和Cockcroft-Walton
    NPL24×18×183.5MV Van de Graaff
    PTB30×24×142×2MV Tandetron
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  中国计量科学研究院拟建单能中子参考辐射场能量点

    Table  5.   Neutron energies of the monoenergetic neutron reference radiation field to be built at the National Institute of Metrology, China

    中子能量点/MeV核反应角度
    0.00245Sc(p,n)45TiSc70°
    0.00845Sc(p,n)45TiSc70°
    0.02445Sc(p,n)45TiSc40°
    7Li(p,n)7BeLiF76.5°
    0.1447Li(p,n)7BeLiF
    0.257Li(p,n)7BeLiF
    0.5657Li(p,n)7BeLiF
    1.2T(p,n)3HeTi(T)
    2.5T(p,n)3HeTi(T)
    2.8T(p,n)3HeTi(T)
    5D(d,n)3HeTi(D)
    8*9Be(α,n)12CBe
    14.8T(d,n)4HeTi(T)
    17T(d,n)4HeTi(T)
    19T(d,n)4HeTi(T)
    注:*非单能中子。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-02-29
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-27
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-07-09

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