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自由空间单站反射系数测量中校准方法的比较

杨若楠 梁伟军 徐浩

杨若楠,梁伟军,徐浩. 自由空间单站反射系数测量中校准方法的比较[J]. 计量科学与技术,待出版. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0080
引用本文: 杨若楠,梁伟军,徐浩. 自由空间单站反射系数测量中校准方法的比较[J]. 计量科学与技术,待出版. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0080
YANG Ruonan, LIANG Weijun, XU Hao. Comparison of Calibration Methods in Free-Space Monostatic Reflection Coefficient Measurement[J]. Metrology Science and Technology. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0080
Citation: YANG Ruonan, LIANG Weijun, XU Hao. Comparison of Calibration Methods in Free-Space Monostatic Reflection Coefficient Measurement[J]. Metrology Science and Technology. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0080

自由空间单站反射系数测量中校准方法的比较

doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2024.0080
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2022YFF0605901)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨若楠(2001-),中国计量科学研究院在读研究生,研究方向:微波测量技术与计量,邮箱:yangrn@nim.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    梁伟军(1978-),中国计量科学研究院副研究员,研究方向:无线电导波基本参数计量与测试技术,邮箱:liangwj@nim.ac.cn

Comparison of Calibration Methods in Free-Space Monostatic Reflection Coefficient Measurement

  • 摘要: 微波黑体为微波辐射计提供高精度的亮温信号以精确标定观测目标的辐射信号。微波黑体的发射率是影响其辐射特性的重要参数,因此准确测量黑体发射率对于提高辐射计的定标精度和保证量值的溯源性和有效传递具有重要意义,目前黑体发射率主要通过测量反射率来间接计算得到。实现了自由空间单站反射系数测量中的两种校准方法:偏移短路校准法和滑动负载校准法,采用时域门技术解决了小反射测量过程中多径反射信号的影响。搭建了反射率测量系统,在75~110 GHz频段内测量了同一黑体目标的反射率,并对测量结果进行了分析和比较。两种校准方法解算的误差项具有高度一致性,测量发射率均能到达0.999~0.9999量级。当测量目标满足近似条件时,使用滑动负载校准法具有更高的效率。最后,以偏移短路法为例,采用蒙特卡洛方法对求解的黑体目标反射系数进行了不确定度评定。
  • 图  1  辐射计两点定标原理

    Figure  1.  Two-point calibration principle of radiometers

    图  2  反射率测量系统示意图

    Figure  2.  Reflectivity measurement system diagram

    图  3  自由空间单端口反射系数测量信号流图

    Figure  3.  Free space monostatic reflectivity measurement signal-flow graph

    图  4  半参数圆拟合法拟合$ {\mathit{\varGamma }}_{\mathbf{m}\mathbf{e}\mathbf{a}\mathbf{s}} $

    Figure  4.  Semi-parametric circular fitting method fitting $ {\mathit{\varGamma }}_{\mathbf{m}\mathbf{e}\mathbf{a}\mathbf{s}} $

    图  5  自由空间单站反射系数测量系统示意图

    Figure  5.  The free-space monostatic reflectivity measurement system

    图  6  滑动负载校准法中任意两个频点半参数圆拟合示例

    Figure  6.  Example of semi-parametric circular fitting for any two frequency points in sliding load calibration method

    图  7  两种校准方法解算的误差项对比

    Figure  7.  The comparison of error terms calculated using two calibration methods

    图  8  黑体目标两种自由空间单端口反射系数测量结果对比

    注:蓝色曲线为测量结果,橘色曲线为差值。

    Figure  8.  Comparison of the free space one port reflectance measurement results of the blackbody target

    图  9  偏移短路校准法75.656 GHz反射系数实部单批次MCM概率分布

    Figure  9.  Single batch MCM probability distribution of the reflectivity real part at 75.656 GHz using the offset short-circuit calibration method

    表  1  两种校准方法在不同测量设置下所需时间对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of the time required for the two calibration methods in different measurement settings

    校准
    方法
    频点数校准件移动次数
    (负载/金属板)
    程序解算
    时间(秒)
    滑动负载
    校准法
    70140.011754
    160140.036484
    50.036092
    80.030351
    250040.059153
    偏移短路
    校准法
    701493.747827
    16014319.017061
    5334.650704
    8355.390375
    25004447.168423
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  反射系数输入量

    Table  2.   Reflection coefficient input

    输入量 测量值
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{c}\mathrm{h}} $ −0.0012 − 0.0060i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{s}\mathrm{h}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{t}} $ −0.0470 − 0.0773i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(1\right)} $ −0.0802 − 0.0350i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(2\right)} $ −0.0830 + 0.0164i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(3\right)} $ −0.0536 + 0.0605i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(5\right)} $ −0.0045 + 0.0780i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(6\right)} $ 0.04580 + 0.0641i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(7\right)} $ 0.0778 + 0.0210i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(8\right)} $ 0.0781 − 0.0318i
    $ {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}} $ −0.0019 − 0.0055i
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  反射系数幅值测量误差正态分布参数

    Table  3.   Reflection coefficient amplitude measurement error normal distribution parameter

    输入量 均值($ \times {10}^{-4} $) 方差($ \times {10}^{-4} $)
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{c}\mathrm{h}}\right| $ 9.1762 1.1900
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{s}\mathrm{h}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{t}}\right| $ 9.0422 5.3508
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(1\right)}\right| $ 9.0462 5.9843
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(2\right)}\right| $ 9.0429 5.5828
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(3\right)}\right| $ 9.0433 5.3509
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(4\right)}\right| $ 9.0438 5.1816
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(5\right)}\right| $ 9.0468 5.3670
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(6\right)}\right| $ 9.0472 5.3670
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(7\right)}\right| $ 9.0491 5.5869
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}^{\mathrm{o}\mathrm{f}\mathrm{f}\left(8\right)}\right| $ 9.0515 6.1805
    $ \left|\delta {\varGamma }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{s}}\right| $ 9.7156 1.1962
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2024-03-13
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-13
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-30

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