2022 Vol. 66, No. 11

Display Method:
Research on Frequency Shift Theory of Grating Interference Systems Based on 4D Covariates
LIN Zichao, YAO Yulin, ZHOU Tong, XUE Dongbai, GU Zhenjie, DENG Xiao, CHENG Xinbin, LI Tongbao
2022, 66(11): 3-11, 26. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0248
Abstract(332) HTML (103) PDF(38)
The assembly and angular commissioning errors in the grating interference system are the direct causes of the geometric misalignment of the detection light and its deviation from the detector sensing center. To clarify the influence of the integrated attitude error of the detection light on the interferometric phase and displacement measurement results, based on the 4D expression of the wave vector of special relativity, this paper directly relates the optical frequency and optical wave vector to the grating equation, constructs a Doppler frequency shift theory system with any arbitrary angle of incidence and grating motion along any direction, and demonstrates the physical characteristics that the frequency shift relationship of diffraction light at the same level is consistent under different grating incidence angles. By comparing the physical images between laser and grating interference systems, it is clarified that even if the optical geometric path of the system does not change with the motion, the reason for the phase change is the special wave vector modulation relationship on the grating surface. The conclusion shows that the grating interference system maintains the displacement transformation relationship in the presence of integrated attitude error of the detection light, and the deflection of the grating period direction is the key source of the geometric measurement error of the system. To preliminarily determine the measurement performance index of a certain system, a method that can quickly determine the original resolution of displacement measurement is given in this paper. Since the frequency shift theory in this paper starts from the underlying logic of physics, the relevant conclusions are universal, which not only guides the principle analysis of all grating interference systems, but also has an important reference for the analysis of geometric measurement errors in various advanced systems.
Research on Error Influencing Factors of Coordinated Measurement of Multi-Base Station Laser Tracker
YIN Ruiduo, ZU Hongfei, CHEN Zhangwei, GUO Xiaowei, YAN Ping
2022, 66(11): 12-15, 52. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0233
Abstract(310) HTML (32) PDF(42)
Laser tracker is widely used in the performance measurement of industrial robots because of its high precision, large measurement range and multi-dimensional measurement. For conventional industrial robot position measurement, a single-base station laser tracker can meet the demand. However, when measuring complex objects such as dual-arm robots and multi-robot linkage systems, the single-base station laser tracker can not meet the requirements of synchronous real-time measurement, and a multi-base station laser tracker is required for coordinated transfer measurement. Based on the measurement principle of multi-base station laser tracker, this paper carries out the research on the error influencing factors of coordinated measurement of multi-base station laser tracker, analyzes the influence of different influencing factors on the measurement error, and compares the solution accuracy of coordinate transformation by the least square method, SVD decomposition method and quaternion solution method through simulation experiments, which has certain guiding significance for the promotion and application of the measurement system of the multi-base station laser tracker system in the future.
Research on the Calibration Methods of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
WANG Fang, SHI Yushu, ZHOU Ying
2022, 66(11): 16-19. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0244
Abstract(356) HTML (167) PDF(40)
As an important analytical tool at the nano-scale, the accuracy of the length measurement value of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) will directly affect the measurement results of samples. In this study, the length measurement error and length measurement repeatability of the high-resolution TEM were calibrated using single-crystal silicon lattice standards, and the uncertainty of the length measurement error was evaluated. To illustrate the applicability of the calibration method, calibration experiments were conducted on three different models of high-resolution TEMs in the study. The results show that the calibration method is widely representative and can achieve an accurate evaluation of TEMs with measured quantities traceable to the silicon lattice constant, which provides technical assurance for accurate measurements in the field of nanotechnology.
Measurement of Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Materials by Laser Absolute Method
CUI Jianqiu, GUO Siyi, REN Guoying, WEI Hengzheng, PEI Limei, GAO Tongling, ZHENG Qingguo
2022, 66(11): 20-26. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0616
Abstract(333) HTML (184) PDF(116)
As the requirements for precision measurement and precision machining continue to increase, the measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of materials has become more and more popular, and the uncertainty evaluation of the measurement results is becoming more and more important when using commercial CTE measurement equipment for metrological traceability. The maximum permissible error, the accuracy of the length measurement of the instrument, the accuracy of the constant temperature of the furnace, the accuracy of the temperature measurement of the instrument, and the repeatability of the measurement results will all directly affect the uncertainty evaluation of the measurement results. In this paper, the uncertainty of the measurement results of the thermal dilatometer is evaluated according to the GUM method. While analyzing the error source of the thermal dilatometer of the laser absolute method, a complete measurement model is given, and the synthetic uncertainty of measuring standard quartz samples is calculated according to the model. The user can assess the uncertainty of the measurement results of the self-use equipment according to the error analysis of the laser absolute method of measuring the CTE.
Determination of Genotoxic Impurities in Safinamide Mesylate by LC/MS
WU Xue, BO Meng, SUN Xiaojing, FAN Yanlong, WANG Yajing, DONG Haifeng
2022, 66(11): 27-30. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0632
Abstract(337) HTML (143) PDF(46)
Safinamide mesylate is mainly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the determination of genotoxic impurities ((S)-4-((1-amino-1-oxopropane-2-methyl)amino)methyl)benzoate) in safinamide mesylate. The sample was dissolved in methanol, separated by YMC-Triart C18 column (4.6mm×100 mm, 3μm), eluted with 0.1 % formic acid in water and 0.1 % formic acid in methanol gradient, and quantified by positive ion scanning in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method has good specificity, and the target compound has a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 1.53-30.54 ng/mL. Standard recovery rate was 98.5%~99.90% with relative standard deviations of 0.83%~2.10%. The linear response range was between 1.53~30.54 ng/mL (R2 >0.99). The results showed that the method was sensitive, accurate, reliable and suitable for screening of genotoxic impurities ((S) - 4 - ((1-amino-1-oxopropane- 2-methyl) amino) methyl) in safinamide mesylate.
Research Progress of Soil Moisture Measurement Technology
ZHENG Han, WANG Haifeng
2022, 66(11): 31-36, 40. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0169
Abstract(322) HTML (146) PDF(61)
Accurate measurement of soil moisture is an urgent need in agricultural irrigation, hydrology, environmental protection, and carbon metrology. The measurement techniques to determine soil moisture are diverse and rapidly developing, including time domain reflectometry (TDR), frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), neutron moisture meters, tensiometry, calcium carbide technique, gypsum blocks, electromagnetic techniques, gamma ray attenuation, hygrometric technique, heat flux sensor technique and remote sensing technique, in addition to the classical loss on drying. The loss on drying method is a reference method for the measurement of soil moisture, which can be used to calibrate other measurement methods to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the value. The calibration methods include factory calibration, field calibration, and laboratory calibration. In order to determine the soil moisture accurately and conveniently, it is necessary to select appropriate measurement methods and calibration methods according to the actual situation in order to obtain accurate and reliable measurement results. This paper introduces the principles and characteristics of measurement methods and calibration methods for soil moisture, and forecasts the development trend of related measurement technology.
Traceability Analysis of Primary Standard for Leeb Hardness Based on Ordinal Quantities
WANG Ningxi, LUO Xin, GAO Jianzhuo, CHEN Long
2022, 66(11): 37-40. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0565
Abstract(176) HTML (53) PDF(22)
The quantity value of Leeb hardness test method for metallic materials is ordinal with no derived unit. At present, China has not developed the corresponding primary standards or traceability systems. In the paper, based on the principle of the Leeb hardness test, the process and characteristics of the traceability of the quantity value of the ordinal quantity measuring instrument are analyzed by using the direct test method. Furthermore, by conducting experiments on each parameter of the Leeb hardness tester, the feasibility of developing a primary standard for the measurement of Leeb hardness has been discussed, and reference is provided for further exploring the development of the Leeb hardness national benchmark and the quantitative value transfer system.
Study on the Realization of the Horizontal Position of Metal Gauge and Related Issues
ZHANG Ying, GUO Ligong, WAN Lifen, YANG Fan
2022, 66(11): 41-46. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0167
Abstract(294) HTML (68) PDF(29)
If the standard metal gauge level deviates from the due verification position or is not adjusted due to human factors, it will easily lead to the slant between the working state and the due state of the gauge. To determine the impact of such deviation, the spatial geometric relationship between the measuring neck and the level tube is analyzed to determine the function of the deviation of the level measurement caused by the slant. The principle of common level-compensated metal gauges is analyzed, and the functional relationship between several different forms of level compensation is given. On this basis, recommendations are made for selecting level-compensated gauges with vertically aligned level tubes. The slant between the measuring neck, level tube, scale and the main part generated in the production process is analyzed, and it is concluded that the installation tilt has no effect on the measurement results.
Development of a Fan Energy Efficiency Online Detection System Based on Industrial Internet
CHENG Wei, XU Dinghua, LI Changwu, JIANG Jianlin, NI Jinchun, WANG Yiwei
2022, 66(11): 47-52. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0133
Abstract(167) HTML (36) PDF(22)
To realize the online monitoring and energy-saving evaluation of the fan energy efficiency on-site, an online detection system for fan energy efficiency suitable for field use has been developed based on Java programming language and industrial wireless data communication technology, in accordance with GB/T 15913, GB/T 10178, GB/T 34867.1 and other standards, which can realize the real-time monitoring of the unit consumption, motor load rate, and energy utilization efficiency, as well as energy saving monitoring, energy efficiency analysis and energy saving evaluation. By developing a fan verification platform to test the fan to be transformed, the results show that the system operates stably, and the detection data is accurate and reliable, which can reflect the operating condition and energy efficiency level of the fan in real-time.
Improved Visible Near-Infrared Colorimetric Thermometry System and Performance Evaluation
CHEN Jinlong, JIANG hongyu, YI fangzheng, WANG Dongying, LIU Tao, HU Xiaohe
2022, 66(11): 53-58. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0211
Abstract(161) HTML (50) PDF(28)
Visible near-infrared colorimetric thermometry system instruments have been widely used in scientific research and industrial high-temperature monitoring. Since the gray value range of the instrument is limited, the existing research usually splices the temperature measurement bandwidth under different system parameters (exposure time, aperture) to extend the temperature measurement range. However, the fitted curves of grayscale values and temperature of the two channels of the system are exponential functions, and the growth rate of the two curves differs significantly, which will lead to the problems of narrowing the temperature measurement bandwidth and poor linearity of the system sensitivity. In addition, the existing evaluation and analysis methods for the performance of colorimetric thermometry system are not perfect. Given the above problems, a set of visible light near-infrared colorimetric thermometry system is developed, and a method of gray value attenuation is proposed to expand the temperature measurement bandwidth of the system. After the calibration experiment with the blackbody furnace is carried out, the channel sensitivity, temperature measurement bandwidth and system sensitivity of the improved and the original systems are compared and analyzed. It is found that this method extends the temperature measurement bandwidth of the instrument by more than two times, and effectively improves the linearity of the system sensitivity. Finally, the system's overall performance is compared with other instruments to verify the practicability of the instrument.
Development of Online Tension Calibration Device for Mask Machine
LIN Xiaohui
2022, 66(11): 59-63. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0217
Abstract(186) HTML (68) PDF(39)
To ensure the accuracy and reliability of the tension sensor of the mask machine through traceability, a calibration device was designed for online measurement of the tension system without disassembling the sensor and other parts of the mask machine. Using the method of force value step loading, a standard force value is applied along the force axis of the force sensor to measure the tension sensor and complete the online calibration of the metrological characteristics of the tension sensor. The calibration device can be used to accurately measure and calibrate the tension sensor of the mask machine under different working conditions to ensure that the manufactured masks meet the requirements of relevant standards. The calibration device is designed using Solidworks software, and the performance of the device meets the design requirements after metrology testing. The calibration results of the mask machine tension sensor meet the range specified in the standard.
Discussion on the Influence of Uncertainty Introduced by Sample Long-term Stability on the Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility Proficiency Testing Results
CHEN Jun, ZENG Bo, DENG Junyong, LIN Daoqi, ZHENG Shangshang
2022, 66(11): 64-67, 72. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0252
Abstract(175) HTML (42) PDF(32)
Due to the long implementation period of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) proficiency testing program, the uncertainty introduced by the long-term stability of the samples cannot be ignored, which will have a more significant impact on the calculation of the standard deviation of the proficiency assessment and thus on the evaluation of the results. This paper discusses the influence of the uncertainties introduced by the long-term stability of samples on the evaluation of the results of the proficiency testing program, and proposes that the uncertainties introduced by the long-term stability of samples should be taken into account when calculating the standard deviation of proficiency testing, so as to evaluate the results more objective and reasonable.
Development of the Calibration Specification for Dry Biochemistry Analyzers
CUI Hongen, ZHANG Chao, ZHAO Li, SI Qiyi
2022, 66(11): 68-72. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0559
Abstract(439) HTML (314) PDF(51)
The accuracy of the dry biochemistry analyzer's analytical results directly impacts the clinical diagnosis results. The main metrological characteristics and specific calibration methods are determined by analyzing the technical principles of dry biochemistry analyzers, and representative dry biochemistry analyzers are selected for experimental validation. Based on the calibration method, the metrological characteristics of the dry biochemical analyzer were verified, and the verification results met the requirements of the determined metrological characteristics. The calibration specification of the dry biochemical analyzer was formulated to promote the standardization and standardization of the traceability of the dry biochemical analyzer.