2023 Vol. 67, No. 6

Measuring Instruments and Systems
Design and Measurability Study of Wavelength Calibration Devices for Grating Monochromators
SUN Ruoduan, HE Yingwei, LIU Xinmeng
2023, 67(6): 3-8. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0134
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Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive measurability analysis for grating monochromator wavelength calibration devices based on continuous spectrum light sources and Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). The study identifies and extracts critical parameters such as wavelength indication error, spectral bandwidth, and wavelength repeatability for achieving measurability. The research delves into the metrological design, emphasizing the measurement methodologies for wavelength indication error, the routes for traceability, and the interface dynamics between optics and mechanics. The veracity of the proposed metrological design is tested through a series of experiments. The study adopts a life-cycle approach for the device's measurability design, analyzing from the vantage points of multiple stakeholders and under varied scenarios. The overarching goal of this research is to ensure that all requirements for measurement instruments are meticulously addressed. By sequentially addressing potential pitfalls, this study aims to mitigate management oversights during the project's progression, thereby enhancing the likelihood of success for the measurement device's development.
Design and Simulation of a Self-Traceable MOEMS Accelerometer Oscillator
CHANG Zhikun, ZHANG Wanyi, SHEN Xiaoyu, MU Qun, HAN Xiaoling, SONG Song, NIU Pengfei, DENG Xiao, CHENG Xinbin
2023, 67(6): 9-15, 43. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0109
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Abstract:
MOEMS accelerometers are emerging as a pivotal trend in acceleration sensor technology. The accuracy of their measurements predominantly hinges on optical displacement detection methods. The coherent design and the congruence of the oscillator are pivotal for maximizing measurement efficacy. This study introduces a super-precise displacement measurement method, the self-traceable grating interferometry, marked by its direct traceability, high precision, and miniaturization, aligning seamlessly with the displacement measurement prerequisites of MOEMS accelerometers. Leveraging the properties of the self-traceable grating interferometry, we design, calculate, and simulate the oscillator of a self-traceable MOEMS accelerometer. Through the mechanical theory model, we deduced the stiffness and natural frequency of the oscillator. Utilizing the COMSOL software, simulations were run on its resonant modes, axial sensitivities, and stress distributions. Our design achievements include a oscillator with a remarkable displacement sensitivity reaching 10.01 μm/g and exhibiting minimal cross-coupling. Such advancements underscore the value of this research in the realm of direct traceability and the refinement of high-precision accelerometer measurement paradigms.
Design of Vehicle Terminal Calibration System and Positioning Error Correction
ZHANG Jian, LI Yang, CHENG Xu
2023, 67(6): 16-21. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0160
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Abstract:
In recent years, the road transportation industry has witnessed significant advancements. While there have been improvements in vehicle transport efficiency and cargo capacity, there is a paramount need to enhance the safety management of transport vehicles by monitoring their routes and conditions in real time. Current vehicle terminal calibration systems exhibit significant positioning errors and sluggish information updates. This paper introduces a developed calibration system for satellite positioning of road transport vehicles. Through simultaneous measurement of displacement and speed data from both the calibration system and the vehicle terminal at varying speeds, the positioning discrepancies of the vehicle terminal were discerned. An innovative correction method, integrating genetic algorithms with a BP neural network, was proposed to rectify these errors. By comparing positioning data pre and post-correction, we observed maximum error reductions of 82.79%, 87.95%, and 89.55% respectively. Experimental outcomes affirm the efficacy of the BP neural network-based positioning error model, demonstrating substantial error correction capabilities.
Measurement Methods and Techniques
Research on Metrology Techniques for Strong Magnetic Fields Using the Magnetic Flux Modulation Method
ZHANG Yubo, LI Zhun, LU Yunfeng, HE Qing
2023, 67(6): 22-28, 62. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0138
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Abstract:
Stable, strong magnetic fields are instrumental in scientific research, biomedicine, and material science. Addressing the challenges in measuring and tracing super-strong magnetic fields, we introduce a measurement method derived from the magnetic flux modulation principle, leading to the development of a highly stable magnetic field measuring instrument. By employing a refined signal conditioning circuit and harnessing the phase-locking principle to achieve optimal signal-to-noise ratio, we deduce the induced electromotive force corresponding to the magnetic induction intensity of the inspected strong magnetic field. Calibration of the instrument's coil constant with a standard magnetic field allows the constant to serve as a transfer standard, facilitating ultra-strong magnetic field measurements and calibrations. We examined superconducting strong magnetic fields within the 1-7 T range, providing an in-depth analysis and evaluation of the measuring device and coil constant. Our findings highlight that the measurement bias for the 1-7 T magnetic field is better than 0.083%. The relative uncertainty introduced by our instrument is up to 3×10−4, marking a significant advancement for ultra-strong magnetic field measurements.
Research and Application of Integrated Intelligent Control Technology
CHEN Yuefei, WANG Li, YU Zhun, XIAO Ke, FAN Yizhong
2023, 67(6): 29-36, 21. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0147
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Abstract:
Integrated intelligent control technology integrates various intelligent technologies and control strategies to address the limitations of effectiveness, adaptability, and scalability posed by the singular use of traditional control technologies in nonlinear systems, complex systems, and systems influenced by uncertainty. This technology seeks to enhance the scientific and technological attributes, robustness, and adaptability of control systems. The paper expounds on the features of fuzzy control, neural network control, sliding mode variable structure control, and genetic algorithms within the realm of intelligent control. It provides an overview of the integration methods of fuzzy control with neural network control, fuzzy control with sliding mode variable structure control, neural network control with sliding mode variable structure control, and genetic algorithms with fuzzy control. Additionally, it highlights the application scenarios of each integrated control approach in recent years. The technical specifications of intelligent control and its prospective developmental trends are also discussed.
Study on the Calibration Method of Nano-Positioning Stages Using Grating Interferometers
LIU Liqin, GUAN Yuqing, ZOU Wenzhe, GUO Chuangwei, ZHANG Yujie, XU Ruishu, FU Yunxia, LEI Lihua
2023, 67(6): 37-43. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0114
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Abstract:
As the critical dimensions in integrated circuit manufacturing approach the 5nm node, the demand for the industrialization of integrated circuit testing equipment has surged. The nano-positioning stage, a pivotal component in semiconductor manufacturing, ultra-precision machining, and precision instrument manufacturing, is experiencing increasingly stringent demands for its repetitive positioning accuracy and linearity. The grating interferometer, which leverages the pitch of the grating as a reference material for measurement, showcases remarkable environmental resilience and superior stability. This makes the grating interferometer an emerging trend in the industrialization of macro-nano measurement equipment. This study presents a calibration method for the nano-positioning stage using a grating interferometer. The feasibility of this method is confirmed through experimental validations. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the measurement uncertainty and traceability chain is conducted, highlighting the robustness and shortened traceability path of the proposed calibration approach.
Research on Micro Vibration Measurement and Analysis Method of Using
WANG Hongjun, YE Wen
2023, 67(6): 44-48. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2022.0227
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Abstract:
Precision instruments have become indispensable tools within laboratories. Subtle environmental vibrations are progressively recognized as significant determinants that can impact the accuracy of these instruments' measurements. To establish a consistent technical standard for the testing and analysis of micro-vibrations within precision instrument environments, this study delineates the configuration of the testing system and main technical specifications of the testing apparatus. It elaborately discusses the foundational concepts behind testing micro-vibrations in sites, structures, and anti-vibration base platforms. Additionally, this paper outlines the specifications for collecting vibration data and the corresponding analytical techniques. The insights from this research will serve as a crucial reference for selecting appropriate environments for precision instruments and for ensuring quality control and validation during the anti-vibration engineering phase.
Impact Studies in Metrology
Analysis of the Discrepancies Between the Contour Scanning and Double Ball Stylus Methods for Thread Pitch Diameter Measurement
WEI Hengzheng, PEI Limei, CUI Jianqiu, GUO Siyi, XIANG Sisi
2023, 67(6): 49-53. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0126
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Abstract:
The pitch diameter serves as a crucial metric in assessing thread gauge quality. Measurement techniques for the thread pitch diameter predominantly employ a 1D-length measuring machine equipped with both a double-ball stylus and a contour scanner. During the APMP.L-S9-2019 cylindrical thread gauge international comparison, notable discrepancies were observed in the measurement outcomes of the two methods, especially for gauges with an inferior tooth profile. The contour scanning approach determines the pitch diameter by applying least-square fitting to the tooth profile, leading to a positional translation in comparison to the double-ball stylus method's actual contact surface. This causes the pitch diameter line to deviate. Consequently, when the straightness of the tooth profile is compromised, significant differences arise in the measurement results between the two methods. The findings have been corroborated through theoretical analysis coupled with experimental validation. For plug thread gauges, the contour scanning technique tends to yield measurements lower than the double-ball stylus method. Conversely, for ring thread gauges, the contour scanning's results surpass those of the double-ball stylus method. The differential between the two methods approximately equals the cumulative straightness of the tooth profile on both sides. The analytical methodology introduced herein is also relevant when comparing the three-wire and scanning methods.
Measurement of Organic Impurities in Tetrabromobisphenol A and Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty
LIU Si, PENG Zijuan, WAN Kangni, LI Penghui, SONG Shanjun
2023, 67(6): 54-62. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0087
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Abstract:
To ensure accurate determination of organic impurities in certified reference materials for organic purity, we studied the brominated flame retardant tetrabrombisphenol A (TBBPA). Using the area normalization and standard curve methods, we quantified its primary organic impurity, tribromobisphenol A, and evaluated the associated uncertainties. Additionally, the impurity's content was measured using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR). The impurity levels derived from the area normalization and standard curve methods were 0.70% ± 0.04% and 1.16% ± 0.09%, respectively. A combined purity estimate yielded 0.93% ± 0.24%, encompassing the qNMR result of 0.76% ± 0.03%. When significant discrepancies (>0.1%) arise between the area normalization and standard curve methods, their combined result can be adopted to guarantee the accuracy of the measurement.
Performance Verification of the Constant Temperature and Humidity Chamber in Textile Testing and Analysis of Door Operation Impacts
LI Zhi, CHANG Zhirui, LIU Jianguo, WANG Shaohui
2023, 67(6): 63-68. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2023.0116
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Abstract:
Constant temperature and humidity chambers play a crucial role, predominantly in the textile testing sector. The reliability of test results hinges on the precision of the chamber's temperature and humidity controls. Based on the metrological characteristics of these chambers, a stratified approach was employed to measure temperature, humidity, and the implications of door operations. Findings reveal that the chamber's metrological attributes are satisfactory. For optimal monitoring of lab temperature and humidity fluctuations, it is recommended to position the hygrometer at the room's central point. A notable observation is that an 80-second door opening can lead to humidity excursions, necessitating a 2-minute period post-door closure to regain stability. This study provides insights that can guide periodic reviews and everyday operations of the constant temperature and humidity chambers.
Measurement Management
Overview of the 2021-2030 Strategic Plan for the CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group
JIAO Hui, ZHANG Qinghe
2023, 67(6): 69-74. doi: 10.12338/j.issn.2096-9015.2021.0652
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Abstract:
Organic analysis plays a pivotal role in chemical metrology, spanning significant domains like food, clinical sciences, and environmental studies. The Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) represents one of the nine distinct technical working groups under the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance: Metrology in Chemistry and Biology (CCQM) affiliated with the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM). Its primary objective is to foster advancements in organic metrology, ensuring its global comparability. In December 2020, the OAWG unveiled its strategic roadmap for 2021-2030. This outline of OAWG's forward-looking strategies serves as a valuable reference, shedding light on the present state of global organic chemical metrology, pinpointing international growth trajectories, and offering insights into the future direction for organic chemical metrology within China.